Q.1-: What is word processor ? Explain its feature and uses?
Word processor is an application software, which is capable of creating ,editing, saving, and printing documents.
A word processor is a software program capable of creating, storing, and printing typed documents. Today, the word processor is one of the
most frequently used software programs on a computer, with Microsoft Word being the most popular word processor
Features of a word processor
Unlike a basic plaintext editor, a word processor offers dozens of additional features that can give your document
or other text a more professional appearance. Below is a listing of some of the most popular features of a word processor.
Changing the font, font size, font color, bold, italicizing, underline, etc.
2.Copying, cutting, and pasting -
Once text has been entered into a documented it can be copied or cut and pasted anywhere in the current document or another document.
Insert clip art, charts, images, pictures, and video into a document.
4.Spelling and Grammar -
Checks for spelling and grammar errors in a document.
5.Adjust the layout -
Capable of modifying the margins, size, and layout of a document.
Word processors give you the ability to quickly find any word or text in any size of the document.
7.Search and Replace -
You can use the Search and Replace feature to replace any text throughout a document.
8.Indentation and lists -
Set and format tabs, bullet lists, and number lists.
9.Insert tables -
Add tables to a document.
10.Word wrap -
Word processors can detect the edges of a page or container and automatically wrap the text using word wrap.
11.Header and footer -
Being able to adjust and change text in the header and footer of a document.
Look up alternatives to a word without leaving the program.
13.Multiple windows -
While working on a document, you can have additional windows with other documents for comparison or move text between documents.
Automatically correct common errors (e.g., typing "teh" and having it autocorrected to "the" .
15.Mailers and labels -
Create mailers or print labels.
16.Import data -
Import and format data from CSV, database, or another source.
17.Headers and footers -
The headers and footers of a document can be customized to contain page numbers, dates, footnotes, or any text of all pages of the document or specific pages.
Word processors allow data from other documents and files to be automatically merged into a new document. For example, you can mail merge names into a letter.
Setup macros to perform common tasks.
More modern word processors can help multiple people work on the same document at the same time.
Uses of a word processor
When it comes to computer programs, a word processor is one of the most used programs on a computer because of its
versatility in creating a document. Below is a list of the top examples of how you could use a word processor
Write a book.
Any text document that requires formatting.
3.Help documentation -
Support documentation for a product or service.
Keep a digital version of your daily, weekly, or monthly journal.
Write a letter to one or more people. Mail merge could also be
used to automatically fill in the name, address, and other fields of the letter.
6.Marketing plan -
An overview of a plan to help market a new product or service.
Create a memo for employees.
A status report or book report.
Create or maintain your resume.
1. Saving Time
Q.2-: Advantage of Word Processing
Word processing saves time, making it an obvious asset in the workplace. Most people can type much faster than they can write by hand. Proficient typists can exceed 60 words per minute and potentially go much higher than that, whereas legibility concerns limit people's handwriting rates. Word processing also saves time in that employees can don't have to worry about fumbling paper around or writing neatly.
2. Digitizing Information
By using a word processor to type documents electronically, it becomes quick and easy to transfer, copy and preserve information. This offers great utility and functionality to most companies and compares favorably to paper filing systems. Filing, retrieving and copying all require a significant amount of time in a paper filing system, and the storage requirements are significant. Paper files are also subject to decay, damage and misplacement in a way that digital file systems are not.
3. Improving Efficiency and Accuracy
Besides simply saving time, word processing offers ways to improve workers' efficiency and accuracy. Word processors contain software to automatically correct common errors and identify misspellings, improving overall speed and reducing errors. They also makes it easier to create and organize new files as well as retrieve and manipulate existing ones. These kinds of improvements offer a clear appeal to business, explaining the widespread transition to computers and word processing in office environments.
4. Reducing Supply Costs
While word processors and the computers to run them certainly cost money, so do the materials to use paper documents. A prolific employee might go through several reams of paper in a month, as well as a variety of pens, pencils, staples, paperclips and binders. These material costs add up, as do the logistical costs of having them delivered and the real estate costs of finding room to store them.
Q.3-: Disadvantage of Word Processing
Word processors are computer programs designed to allow users to
compose papers, letters and articles by typing with a keyboard. Word processing programs offer many
conveniences over hand writing information such as spell checking and simple editing, but despite their advantages, they also have some notable drawbacks
User accessibility can be a drawback. While almost anyone can pick up a pen and paper and start writing, word processing requires access to a computer and a word processing program. Computers can cost hundreds of dollars and word processing software itself may also be expensive.
Word processing can increase writing productivity, but it requires moderately fast keyboarding speed. For users who are new to computers, hand writing information may be faster than keyboarding. Additionally, if the users intent is to create a physical copy of the document, word processors require the additional step of printing.
Another potential issue with word processing is the compatibility of data files that word processors use to store information. The files one program uses to store information might not be readable by a different program, so if you send a document to someone else that doesn't' have the same word processor as you they might to be able to open it.
4. Data Loss
Word processing is also subject to the problem of data loss. If you are working on a document and your computer crashes or there is a power outage, you might lose some of the information in your project. If your computer contracts a virus or the hard drive fails, you might even lose all of the documents on the computer's hard drive. Data loss can be minimized by backing up documents to external hard drives or sending them out via email.
Another issue with usability of word processors is the user interface. The interface and options available will vary from one program to another, which can make formatting and using the features of word processing cumbersome and confusing. Learning to use the various functions of a word processor can take time and may be difficult without formal instruction.
Some people feel that type written information is less personal than hand written information. For personal writing such as letters, a few hand-written words may be more effective than a long type written letter
Excel is a software program from Microsoft that is part of the Microsoft Office suite of productivity software developed by Microsoft. Released on September 30, 1985, Excel is capable of creating and editing spreadsheets that are saved with a .xls or .xlsx file extension. General uses of Excel include cell-based calculation, pivot tables, and various graphing tools. For instance, with an Excel spreadsheet, you could create a monthly budget, track business expenses, or sort and organize large amounts of data.
Q.4-: What is excel
There are many reasons people may use Excel (a spreadsheet program). For example, someone might use Excel to keep track of their expenses. For a full list of reason and examples of how people use a spreadsheet, see our spreadsheet definition.
Q.5-: Why do people use Excel?
1. Conditional Formatting
Making sense of our data-rich, noisy world is hard but vital. Used well, Conditional Formatting brings out the patterns of the universe, as captured by your spreadsheet. Thatis why Excel experts and Excel users alike vote this the #1 most important feature. This can be sophisticated. But even the simplest colour changes can be hugely beneficial. Suppose you have volumes sold by sales staff each month. Just three clicks can reveal the top 10% performing salespeople and tee up an important business conversation.
Q.6-: Feature of excel
At 4 hours to get to proficiency, you may be put off learning PivotTables but don’t be. Use them to sort, count, total or average data stored in one large spreadsheet and display them in a new table, cut however you want. Thatis the key thing here. If you want to look only at sales figures for certain countries, product lines or marketing channels, itis trivial. Warning: make sure your data is clean first!
3. Paste Special
Grabbing (ie Copying) some data from one cell and pasting it into another cell is one of the most common activities in Excel. But thereis a lot you might copy (formatting, value, formula, comments, etc) and sometimes you won’t want to copy all of it. The most common example of this is where you want to lose the formatting – the place this data is going is your own spreadsheet with your own styling.
4. Add Multiple Rows
Probably one of the most frequently carried out activities in spread sheeting. Ctrl Shift + is the shortcut, but actually it takes longer, so Right Click is what we recommend. If you want to add more than one, select as many rows or columns as you’d like to add and then Right Click and add.
5. Absolute References
Indispensable! The dollar in front of the letter fixes the column, the dollar sign in front of number fixes the row F4 toggles through the four possible combinations.
6. Print Optimization
Everyone has problems printing from Excel. But just imagine if what you printed were always just what you intended to print. It IS actually possible. There are a few components to this though: print preview, fit to one page, adjusting margins, print selection, printing headers, portrait vs landscape and spreadsheet design. Invest the time to get comfortable with it. You’ll be carrying out this task many, many times in your working life.
7. Extend formula across/down
The beauty of Excel is its easy scalability. Get the formula right once and Excel will churn out the right calculation a million times. The + cross hair is handy. Double clicking it will take it all the way down if you have continuous data. Sometimes a copy and paste (either regular paste or paste formulas) will be faster for you.
8. Flash Fill
Excel developed a mind of its own in 2013. Say you have two columns of names and you need to construct email addresses from them all. Just do it for the first row and Excel will work out what you mean and do it for the rest. Pre-2013 this was possible but relied on a combination of functions (FIND, LEFT, &, etc). This is much faster and WILL impress people.
This is one of the most powerful combinations of Excel functions. You can use it to look up a value in a big table of data and return a corresponding value in that table. Letis say your company has 10,000 employees and thereis a spreadsheet with all of them in it with lots of information about them like salary, start date, line manager etc. But you have a team of 20 and you’re only really interested in them. INDEX-MATCH will look up the value of your team members (these need to be unique like email or employee number) in that table and return the desired information for your team. This is worth getting your head around this as it is more flexible and therefore more powerful than VLOOKUPs.
Explore data in a table quickly. Filtering effectively hides data that is not of interest. Usually thereis a value e.g. 'Blue cars’ that you’re looking for and Filters will bring up those and hide the rest. But in more modern versions of Excel, you can now also filter on number values (e.g. is greater than, top 10%, etc), and cell color. Filtering becomes more powerful when you need to filter more than one column in combination e.g. both colours and vehicles to find your blue car.
In Microsoft Excel, a chart is often called a graph. It is a visual representation of data from a worksheet that can bring more understanding to the data than just looking at the numbers.
A chart is a powerful tool that allows you to visually display data in a variety of different chart formats such as Bar, Column, Pie, Line, Area, Doughnut, Scatter, Surface, or Radar charts. With Excel, it is easy to create a chart.
Here are some of the types of charts that you can create in Excel
Q.5-: Chart in Excel and types of charts
1. Line Chart: The line chart is one of the most frequently used chart types, typically used to show trends over a period of time. If you need to chart changes over time, consider using a line chart.
2. Column Chart: Column charts are typically used to compare several items in a specific range of values. Column charts are ideal if you need to compare a single category of data between individual sub-items, such as, for example, when comparing revenue between regions.
3. Clustered Column Chart: A clustered column chart can be used if you need to compare multiple categories of data within individual sub-items as well as between sub-items. For instance, you can use a clustered column chart to compare revenue for each year within each region, as well as between regions.
4. Stacked Column Chart: A stacked column chart allows you to compare items in a specific range of values as well as show the relationship of the individual sub-items with the whole. For instance, a stacked column chart can show not only the overall revenue for each year, but also the proportion of the total revenue made up by each region.
5. Pie Chart: Another frequently used chart is the old pie chart. A pie chart represents the distribution or proportion of each data item over a total value (represented by the overall pie). A pie chart is most effective when plotting no more than three categories of data.
6. Bar Chart: Bar charts are typically used to compare several categories of data. Bar charts are ideal for visualizing the distribution or proportion of data items when there are more than three categories. For instance a bar chart could be used to compare the overall revenue distribution for a given set of products.
7. Area Chart: Area charts are ideal for clearly illustrating the magnitude of change between two or more data points. For example, you can give your audience a visual feel for the degree of variance between the high and low price for each month.
8. Combination Chart: A combination chart is a visualization that combines two or more chart types into a single chart. Combination charts are an ideal choice when you want to compare two categories of each individual sub-item. They are commonly used to create visualizations that show the difference between targets versus actual results.
9. XY Scatter Plot Chart: Scatter charts in Excel (also known as XY scatter plot charts) are excellent for showing correlations between two sets of values. For example an XY scatter plot can be used to illustrate the correlation between employee performance and competency, demonstrating that employee performance rises as competency improves. The x and y axes work together to represent data plots on the chart based on the intersection of x values and y values.
10. Bubble Chart: A bubble chart is a variation of an XY scatter plot. Just like the XY scatter plot, bubble charts show the correlation between two sets of data. The difference is the addition of a third dimension that is represented by the size of each bubble in the chart. This third dimension is typically used to show the relative impact of a quantitative data item. For instance, in addition to showing employee performance versus competency, you can have the size of each bubble represent years of service, allowing your audience to quickly get a sense of how years of service may affect the relationship between competency and performance.
What does formatting mean?
Formatting refers to the appearance or presentation of your essay. Another word
for formatting is layout. Most essays contain at least four different kinds of text: headings,
ordinary paragraphs, quotations and bibliographic references.
You may also include footnotes and endnotes.You also have to consider the fonts that you use and page numbering.
Why is formatting important?
Formatting is important for two reasons:
It makes your essay look like an essay (rather than a letter or a note to a friend).
It helps to make your essay more readable.
Lecturers do not usually give extra marks for the formatting of an essay. They are more interested in the content. But all readers are influenced by the presentation of a text. If your essay looks like an essay and is easy to read, the reader will be more likely to have a favourable attitude to what you have written.
1. Character Formatting
Character formatting in Word has to do with applying formatting properties to enhance the appearance of individual text characters. Character formats can be applied to a single character, word, sentence or a line of text, without such formatting affecting the entire current paragraph.
Examples of character formats that can be applied to text characters in Word include those you find in the Font dialog box (such as bold, italic, underline, font, size, color, superscript, subscript, scaling, animation effects, etc), highlight, change case, etc. To apply a character format to a character or a set of characters, you need to specifically select the desired amount of characters and then apply the formatting you want.
The following sections provide you extensive instructions on how to format text characters in Word.
- Change Font
- Change Font Size
- Change Font Style- Bold, Italic Highlighting
- Character Spacing
- Text Underline
- Copy, Cut, Paste Charecters
- Text Animated
- Case Change
2. Paragraph Formatting
Paragraph formatting is a change in the format of text that affects an entire paragraph or is different from other paragraphs in a document. Paragraphs in a word processing document or on a web page can have paragraph formatting applied to them.
- Changing the font of an entire paragraph.
- Increasing the font size of an entire paragraph.
- Indenting an entire paragraph.
The definition of a spreadsheet is a piece of paper or a computer program used for accounting and recording data using rows and columns into which information can be entered.
a workbook is a collection of one or more spreadsheets, also called worksheets, in a single file.
Difference between a workbook, worksheet, and spreadsheet
Because the terms spreadsheet, workbook, and worksheet are so similar, there can be a lot of confusion when trying to understand their differences. When you open Microsoft Excel (a spreadsheet program), you're opening a workbook. A workbook can contain one or more different worksheets that can be accessed through the tabs at the bottom of the worksheet your currently viewing. What's often most confusing is that a worksheet is synonymous with a spreadsheet. In other words, a spreadsheet and worksheet mean the same thing. However, most people only refer to the program as a spreadsheet program and the files it creates as spreadsheet files.
What is a presentation
Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Presentation is also the means of communication which can be adapted to various speaking situation, such as talking to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing a team.
Types of presentation
There are 5 types of presentation:
- 1)Informative: Keep an informative presentation brief and to the point. Stick to the facts and avoid complicated information.
- 2) Instructional: Your purpose in an instructional presentation is to give specific directions or orders. Your presentation will probably be a bit longer, because it has to cover your topic thoroughly.
- 3) Arousing: Your purpose in an arousingpresentation is to make people think about acertain problem or situation.
- 4) Decision-making: Your purpose in a decision-making presentation is to move your audience totake your suggested action. A decision-makingpresentation presents ideas, suggestions, andarguments strongly enough to persuade anaudience to carry out your requests.
- 5) Persuasive: Your purpose in a persuasivepresentation is to convince your listeners to acceptyour proposal.
How to make an effective presentation
The first step of a great presentations is preplanning i.e. acquiring a room, informing participants, etc. The second step is before preparing the presentation, ask yourself the following: What is the purpose of the presentation? Who will be attending? What does the audience already know about the subject? What is the audiences attitude towards me (e.g. hostile, friendly)?
What Is Ratio Analysis?
Ratio analysis is a quantitative method of gaining insight into a company's liquidity, operational efficiency, and profitability by comparing information contained in its financial statements. Ratio analysis is a cornerstone of fundamental analysis.
Ratio analysis compares line-item data from a company's financial statements to reveal insights regarding profitability, liquidity, operational efficiency, and solvency.
- Ratio analysis can be used to look at trends over time for one company or to compare companies within an industry or sector.
- While ratios offer several types of insight, other types of information and analysis are usually needed to form a complete picture of a company's financial position.
Importance and Uses of Ratio Analysis
- Analysis of Financial Statements
- Helps in Understanding the Profitability of the Company
- Analysis of Operational Efficiency of the Firms
- Liquidity of the Firms
- Helps in Identifying the Business Risks of the Firm
- For Planning and Future Forecasting of the Firm
What is DATA
Data is distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way. All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data.
Data can exist in a variety of forms - as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person's mind. Since the mid-1900s, people have used the word data to mean computer information that is transmitted or stored.
Frequency and Frequency Tables
The frequency of a particular data value is the number of times the data value occurs.
For example, if four students have a score of 80 in mathematics, and then the score of 80 is said to have a frequency of 4. The frequency of a data value is often represented by f.
A frequency table is constructed by arranging collected data values in ascending order of magnitude with their corresponding frequencies.
What is a Frequency Distribution?
A frequency distribution is an overview of all distinct values in some variable and the number of times they occur.
That is, a frequency distribution tells how frequencies are distributed over values.
Frequency distributions are mostly used for summarizing categorical variables. That's because metric variables tend to have many distinct values. These result in huge tables and charts that don't give insight into your data. In this case, histograms are the way to go as they visualize frequencies for intervals of values rather than each distinct value.
Frequency distribution statistical Parameters
Correlation is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related. For example, height and weight are related; taller people tend to be heavier than shorter people. The relationship isn't perfect. People of the same height vary in weight, and you can easily think of two people you know where the shorter one is heavier than the taller one. Nonetheless, the average weight of people 5'5'' is less than the average weight of people 5'6'', and their average weight is less than that of people 5'7'', etc. Correlation can tell you just how much of the variation in peoples' weights is related to their heights.
2.What Is Regression?
Regression is a statistical measurement used in finance, investing, and other disciplines that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent variable (usually denoted by Y) and a series of other changing variables (known as independent variables).
Regression helps investment and financial managers to value assets and understand the relationships between variables, such as commodity prices and the stocks of businesses dealing in those commodities.
What Is Capital Budgeting?
Capital budgeting is the process a business undertakes to evaluate potential major projects or investments. Construction of a new plant or a big investment in an outside venture are examples of projects that would require capital budgeting before they are approved or rejected.
As part of capital budgeting, a company might assess a prospective project's lifetime cash inflows and outflows to determine whether the potential returns that would be generated meet a sufficient target benchmark. The process is also known as investment appraisal.
- Capital budgeting is used by companies to evaluate major projects and investments, such as new plants or equipment.
- The process involves analyzing a project's cash inflows and outflows to determine whether the expected return meets a set benchmark.
- The major methods of capital budgeting include throughput, discounted cash flow, and payback analyses.
CAPITAL BUDGETING PROCESS:
- Project identification and generation:
- Project Screening and Evaluation:
- Project Selection:
- Performance review:
FACTORS AFFECTING CAPITAL BUDGETING:
- Availability of Funds
- Working Capital
- Structure of Capital
- Capital Return
- Management decisions
- Need of the project
- Accounting methods
- Government policy
- Taxation policy
- Lending terms of financial institutions
- Economic value of the project